Category Archives: Knowledge

Introduction to Equity Valution

Equity valuation is the next step after equity research. After completing research as explained in previous post in this section we need to now conduct a valuation exercise which is the most crucial part of analysis. It is the process of arriving at value for a company or business. There are many models and formulas to arrive at a forecast value but i will explain you some common model’s in near future.

Equity value is the job to find out how much a company is worth currently and what it is likely to be in near future. It the current market price is lower than the future valuation then we shall buy that stock or business and vice-versa. A valuation model is generally expressed in Formula. Valuation model specifies what we have to forecast and than method to convert this forecast to valuation.

Valuation has became integral part of the financial sector where we are witnessing higher numbers of Mergers and Acquisition taking place on global platform. Valuation model remains common across globe so it becomes easy to value a company in any currency. We will further get into the approach of fundamental valuation in upcoming posts.

Chart constructions

In last post in this section,  i introduced you to different types of charts used for analysis and now we will go through some factors that should be considered while constructing charts.

  • Arithmetic versus Logarithmic Scale

Charts can be plotted using either arithmetic or Logarithmic scale. Difference would be spotted on Y-axis where there will be equal spacing between each unit in Arithmetic scale while there will be equal spacing in percentage terms in Logarithmic scale.  So a move on arithmetic charts from 5-10 would equi-distance to 50-55 while on Logarithmic scale, 5-10 move would be equi-distance to 50-100 where both means 100% move in the price. So for larger trend or long price move history Logarithmic scale would be more preferable for analysis.

  • Volume

Volume is one of the most crucial information after price on charts required for analysis. It represent the total amount of trading activity in that asset on that particular time frame taken under analysis. It is represented by a vertical bar at the bottom of any chart drawn. A higher bar means the volume was heavier for the day and vice-versa. And as Dow Theory suggest volume confirmation is more important with the price so you must strictly consider volumes while technical analysis.

  • Future Open Interest

Open interest in the future segments is the total number of outstanding or open future contracts that are held by market participants in secondary markets. They can be either longs or shorts or both.

So now you are aware of basic points which are considered along the price for construction of charts. We will explain all the points in detail in future post but should remember all factors while we take other crucial concepts.


Charts represents the traded price of underlying asset during the time frame under study. Charts can be of many different types but mostly commonly used charts are Bar charts and candlestick charts because it shows complete price action on the assets unlike line graph were only closing prices are represented. Charts also accompanied by Volumes and Open interest which are also important to focus on while carrying out technical research

There are Following types of Charts

  • Bar Chart


  • Line chart 


  • Candlestick Charts



It was just to make you familiar with different types of charts through this intro post. There many other professional chart patterns too but these are the ones which are most widely used and almost all software’s give facility to plot it.

Increasing demand of Research

Lets now get through about where and how can we use Equity Research and on what does it depend on!

Equity research depends on the maturity of financial markets in an economy and the extent of market depth and breadth. Indian markets have developed over last two decades and its matured enough to research for. Maturity in developing countries such as India can be seen with Foreign Institutional investment in Equity markets. We could notice that number of registered Foreign Institution Investors have been rising as seen in the graph below which increases breadth of our markets 



For the depth of markets we could notice in the graph below that we are receiving FII regularly though they have been in and out quite often depending on the market condition. But if we net it than inflows has been more than out flows in last 5 years

fii_investement Domestic factor which could judge depth and breadth of the markets is the number of companies that are coming for Initial Public Offerings (IPO). Below graph is the funds raise in recent time by India Companies through IPO. We could see a constant offering which means that market depth is increasing from domestic side too


As our market’s depth and breadth is increasing, need of Equity research rises as we need to analysis our each investment call from different angles and in dept before taking a call. With such a growth in capital markets, brokerage houses and investment bankers have started carrying out research services for their clients.  Though such research is more or less targeted towards large institutional investors but now even a small investors are demanding for research before taking investment call. Recently SEBI has also announced Research Analyst Regulations  which allows independent firms to carry out research. This step by SEBI has given opportunity to many small start-ups like us (Luvkush Finserve) to carry out professional and verified services in vast field of Research.

Major Uses of Equity Research:

  • Making investment decisions
  • To determine IPO pricing
  • To value mergers and Acquisitions
  • For strategic investments in other firms

Now we could get an idea from the above information that Equity research is gaining importance in india and avenue for its uses are increasing. So its crucial for us to understand and learn Equity research for making crucial investment decisions.

Equity Research

Equity research can be simply termed as research of Equities.

Equity means common shares or stock of Businesses.

Businesses can be

  • Proprietorship
  • Partnerships or
  • Companies

For Equity research or valuation we should be concerned about the companies part only

Research implies thorough understanding of the company under study. We study their strength, weakness and finances to predict what lies in future for the company.

Thus Equity Research is aimed at unraveling value of companies especially those listed on Equity markets. Good research could help investor to create wealth by investing in such researched equities.

So this was the basic idea about what actually is Equity research. In next post we shall learn about its uses in detail and what factors does it depend on!

Concluding Dow Theory

As we discussed Dow ideas or Tenets yesterday which are pillars, but one more crucial rule of Dow was to consider or give most importance to closing price, irrespective of time frame of chart. He believed averages most close above or below previous low or high to confirm the trend.  So always consider closing price to trigger your analysis

Some criticisms of Dow theory

  • Believed to give reversals late, almost 20-25% after the high or low
  • Generally, buy or sell confirmation occurs in second phase of trend and so its believed to be a laggard

Still to confine this criticisms, Dow theory has captured 68% of the moves in S&P between 1920-1975.  And dow actually wanted to give overall idea of the long term trend through his theory so he never intended initiate trading calls.


Tenents of Dow Theory

Now lets list down some ideas of Charles Dow,  which are considered to be roots of technical research.  Across other books and website number of ideas listed may differ but overall, they are included in the broader categories as listed below:

  • Average Discounts Everything

This idea states that markets reflect every possible knowable factor that affects overall supply and demand, which me mentioned in our post earlier. This is considered to be the basic premises of stock market

  • Market has 3 trends

Any asset class, or markets, behave in three basic trends as Follow:

  1. Uptrend: Dow defines uptrend as a situation as each successive higher high on the price than the previous rally and successive low is also higher than the previous rally
  2. Downtrend: He defined it as a situation with lower low than the previous rally and lower high as Downtrend
  3. Continuation trend: It is defined as the situation where price trades in a particular range between the two rallies.

Dow considered three parts of each trend which are termed as primary, secondary and minor. He compared it with a wave where primary trend represents a tide, and secondary trend represents a wave which makes up for tide. While minor trends are considered to be ripples of the sea. It is generally considered that Secondary wave retraces 50% on avg of primary trend. It is just the most occurring retracement level while there are many other possibilities too.   

  • Major Trend has three phases

This idea simply states that each trend unfolds in three phases of markets

  1. Accumulation: A phase which represents informed buying or astute investors buying which takes place just after the bad news prevailed in the market. While common traders and investors are still bearish on the markets, this phase is controlled by insider buyers or fund managers
  2. Public participation phase: This phase is considered to be the longest one where all the common investors and traders are convinced of a reversal and they jump in to buy. Even technical trend followers begin to participate in the trend.
  3. Distribution phase: This is the end of the rally phase which is commonly signaled by the increasingly bullish headlines on magazines and newspaper. This is the time where same informed investors of accumulation phase starts exiting the position. High of the rally is pinched during this phase
  • Average must confirm each other.

Average here is referred to indices of the market. This idea of Dow states that any two averages which reflects a bunch of stocks traded should confirm each others trend. As an example, it means that Nifty and Nifty bank in India, should move in the same trend on any point of time and if they are not trending in the same direction, then the divergence should be considered for trading.

  • Volume must confirm the trend

Volume is one the most crucial tenant after the price to be considered for technical research. This idea states that any price movement or trend must be associated with volumes. If the major trend is bullish, than each rally should be seen with Volumes while vice-versa for bearish trend.

  • Trend is assumed to be intact until reversal signal

A trend is said to be intact until any clear sign of reversal is seen on the charts. So, as we go deeper into analysis, we will come across many tools which are designed to sign a reversal and until they are not spotted on charts, we should consider a reversal.

So this were the basic ideas or tenants of Dow theory which should be considered as pillars for learning or practicing technical analysis.  In next post we will conclude Dow theory and move on to the next step.

Father of Technical Analysis

After we got some basics clear on ‘What is Technical Analysis’ and cleared some myths on the same, now lets get familiar with the roots of technical.

In 1882, Charles Dow and Edward Jones founded Dow Jones and Company. It is believed by most technical analysts that most theories where founded by DOW and he published his ideas while he wrote for Wall street Journal. Basic ideas of Dow is considered to be the pillars of technical analysis.

Dow was the first person to publish first ever stock market average which consisted of 11 stocks on 3rd July 1884. But after few year in 1897, DOW realized that two separate indices were required to gauge economy and then he constructed a 12 stock industrial average and 20 stocks average. As the Economy expanded, more and more stocks were included in the industrial index to gauge economy better and by 1928 , 30 stocks were included in the index.

Interestingly Dow has never written a book, but he had published his ideas in Wall Street Journal editorials. After his death in 1903, S.A. Nelson, complied everything in one book and it coined the word, “Dow Theory”, which is considered to be a based for learning technical analysis.

There are few basic tenants of the theory which helps to analyze stock and economy at any point of time. I shall discuss in detail on the theory in my next post.